水島秀成 助教 / MIZUSHIMA, Shusei

受精の不思議

水島秀成 助教 /  MIZUSHIMA, Shusei

研究分野・テーマ・内容

研究分野 生命工学
研究テーマ 鳥類の受精機構の解明と受精システムを利用した鳥類遺伝子工学技術の確立

研究内容

決して珍しいものでは有りませんが、鳥類の受精では一つの卵に数十個の精子が侵入します。このような現象を多精受精と呼びます。私たちは、鳥類の胚発生の開始に、複数の精子による刺激が必要であることを突き止めてきました。しかしながら、卵内では、受精に関与しない精子も沢山含まれています。これらの精子はどのようにして選別されるのかなど、鳥類の多精受精には、まだまだミステリアスな部分が多く残されています。それらの全容解明を目指しています。また受精システムを利用したゲノム編集技術を立ち上げ、雌鶏の性決定機構の解明を進めたいと考えています。

メッセージ

鶏の卵は、世界中で消費されているだけでなく、有益な物質を溜め込むバイオリアクターとしても有益な材料です。このシステムを利用してヒトに役立つ何かを考えてみませんか?

参考文献・論文・著書

Mizushima S, Hiyama G, Shiba K, Inaba K, Dohra H, Ono T, Shimada K,  Sasanami T. The birth of quail chicks after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Development 2014;141:3799–3806.

Mizushima S. Establishment of intracytoplasmic sperm injection technique in Japanese quail and its possible application for poultry resources and transgenic birds. J. Poult. Sci. 2012; 49:225.

nameMizushima Shusei

Research subject

Specialized field

Avian Reproductive Biology

Key words

Birds, Polyspermic fertilization, Egg activation, Genome editing

Research subject

Birds exhibit physiologically polyspermic fertilization, in which the entry of several sperm into one egg is permitted. We have previously established avian intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) method and this technique have revealed that a single sperm is insufficient for triggering fertilization and subsequent early embryo development. In order to understand more comprehensive avian polyspermic fertilization, we try to elucidate the molecular mechanism which regulates sperm selection for zygotic formation, now.

We also try to establish a new method of avian transgenesis and gene editing by in vitro fertilization technique, because a progress in gene modification in birds has been hampered due to the lack of traditional strategies such as pronuclear injection of DNA, sperm vector and somatic nuclear transfer. Establishment of this new avian technologies will aid our understanding the mechanism of avian fertilization and sex differentiation and so on, as well as assisting in the production low allergenic egg via the disruption of allergen-related genes.

message

Domestic birds have the potential for efficient protein production from the oviduct into an egg, this physiological characteristic can be applied to avian biotechnology, which may become an efficient bioreactor producing valuable pharmaceutical proteins in eggs. If you have interested in our studies, you may come our laboratory.

references

Mizushima S, Hiyama G, Shiba K, Inaba K, Dohra H, Ono T, Shimada K,  Sasanami T. The birth of quail chicks after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Development 2014;141:3799–3806.

Mizushima S. Establishment of intracytoplasmic sperm injection technique in Japanese quail and its possible application for poultry resources and transgenic birds. J. Poult. Sci. 2012; 49:225.