Report of Systematic Zoology Lab Practicum, August, 2010

Laboratory Course in Systematic Zoology 2010

Hiroshi Kajihara

Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan

Introduction
Thirty-six undergraduate students in Division of Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science, Hokkaido University, taking Systematic Zoology Lab Practicum, went to Oshoro Marine Biological Station on 5 May, 24 May, 31 May, and 7 June 2010 to collect marine invertebrates, particularly among laminarian holdfasts and mussel beds. Clumps of the laminarian holdfasts and mussels were dissected at the marine station, and various invertebrates that crawled out from the sediments were sorted out and roughly identified. Each student chose one invertebrate specimen, which was photographed in living state and fixed in 99% EtOH. Some specimens were cut into two pieces, fixed in 99% EtOH and 10% formalin seawater, respectively.
     After bringing the specimens back to the laboratory in the Sapporo campus, the students extracted DNA, amplified mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI), and determined the sequence. In some cases they were not able to amplify COI region; in such cases they sequenced 28S rDNA instead.


Results
The collection consists of 36 specimens of marine invertebrates belonging to 10 phyla: Arthropoda (14 specimens), Mollusca (6), Annelida (4), Sipuncula (2), Platyhelminthes (2), Chordata (2), Nemertea (2), Echinodermata (2), Cnidaria (1), and Bryozoa (1). Eleven specimens were completely destroyed for DNA extraction; morphological voucher specimens are remaining for the rest of 25 species.
     COI amplification was successful for 27 species using LCO1490 (5′-GGTCAACAAATCATAAAGATATTGG-3′) and HCO2198 (5′-TAAACTTCAGGGTGACCAAAAAATCA-3′) (Folmer et al. 1994). Folmer et al.'s (1994) primer set was ineffective to amplify COI for the polychaete Nereis pelagica, the asteroid Henricia nipponica, the anthozoan Actinia equina, the isopod Idotea ochotensis, the ophiurid Amphipholis kochii, as well as an undetermined species of a pleustid gammarid, terebellid polychaete, and harpactioid copepod.
     

Students' reports

Phylum Cnidaria

Anthopleura pacifica Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758): 28S partial sequence of Actinia equina (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Actiniidae) by Marina Takahashi.

Phylum Platyhelminthes

Planocera reticulata (Stimpson, 1855): Observation of Planocera reticulata (Turbellaria: Polycladida: Planoceridae) by Satoshi Ito.

Notoplana humilis (Stimpson, 1857): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Notoplana humilis (Turbellaria: Polycladida: Leptoplanidae) by Takaaki Suzuki.


Phylum Nemertea

Tubulanus punctatus (Takakura, 1898): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Tubulanus punctatus (Anopla: Palaeonemertea: Tubulanidae) by Naoya Takeda.

Zygonemertes shintai Kajihara, 2002: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Zygonemertes shintai (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Monostilifera: Amphiporidae) by Takumi Onishi.


Phylum Annelida

Nereis pelagica Linnaeus, 1758: 28S rDNA partial sequence of Nereis pelagica (Polychaeta: Aciculata: Nereididae) by Shotaro Aoe.

Harmothoe imbricata (Linnaeus, 1767): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Harmothoe imbricata (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida: Polynoidae) by Yutaro Saiki.

Nereiphylla hera Kato & Mawatari, 1999: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Nereiphylla hera (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida: Phyllodocidae) by Katsuya Negishi.

Terebellidae sp.: 28S ribosomal RNA partial sequence of Terebellidae sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta) by Laurynas Vanagas.

Phascolosoma sp.: Observation of Phascolosoma sp. (Sipuncula) by Inori Shiomi.


Phylum Mollusca

Acanthochitona achates (Gould, 1859): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Acanthochitona achates (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) by Yutaro Suzuki.

Acanthochitona achates (Gould, 1859): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Acanthochitona achates (Polyplacophora: Neoloricata: Acanthochitonidae) by Daisuke Hirata.

Diaulula sandiegensis (Cooper, 1862): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Diaulula sandiegensis (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia: Dorididae) by Hiroyuki Imai.

Coryphella athadona (Bergh, 1875): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Coryphella athadona (Nudibranchia: Coryphellidae: Coryphella) by Yuka Mori.

Coryphellidae sp.: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of an unidentified specimen of the family Corypheliidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) by Ryoma Tanaka.

Egg mass of unidentified species of gastropod: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence from an egg mass of an unidentified gastropod (Mollusca: Gastropoda) by Midori Iwama.


Phylum Arthropoda

Ammothea hilgendolfi (Böhm, 1879): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Ammothea hilgendolfi (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Pycnogonida) by Daisuke Nomi.

Harpacticoida sp.: 28S rDNA partial sequence of an undetermined species of Harpacticoida (Crustacea: Copepoda) by Miku Kato.

Miodocopa sp.: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of an unidentified species of myodocopid ostracod (Crustacea: Ostracoda) by Sho Hirohata.

Pleustidae sp.: 28S rRNA partial sequence of an undetermined gammarid of the family Pleustidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridea) by Koichi Tone.

Caprellidea sp.: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of an unidentified specimen of Caprellidea (Crustacea: Amphipoda) by Tsuyuki Kitagawa.

Caprellidea sp.: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Caprellidea sp. (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda: Caprellidea) by Katsuya Saito.

Dynoides dentisinus Shen, 1929: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Dynoides dentisinus (Crustacea: Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae) by Naoya Koremura.

Dynoides dentisinus Shen, 1929: Observation of Dynoides dentisinus (Crustacea: Isopoda: Shaeromatidae) by Tomohiro Takigahira.

Anthuridea sp.: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of an unidentified specimen of anthuridean (Crustacea: Isopoda) by Suguru Asai.

Idotea ochotensis Brandt, 1851: 28S ribosomal RNA gene partial sequence of Idotea ochotensis (Crustacea: Isopoda: Idoteidae) by Yoriko Kajita.

Apseudomorpha sp.: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequencie of Apseudomorpha sp. (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Metapseudidae) by Tomoko Nagai.

Gaetice depressus (De Haan, 1833): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Gaetice depressus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Grapsidae) by Sou Ohtsu.

Charybdis japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Charybdis japonica (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae) by Takashi Watanabe.


Phylum Bryozoa

Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston, 1874): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of Schizoporella unicornis (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata: Schizoporellidae) by Shohei Mori.


Phylum Echinodermata

Amphipholis kochii Lütken, 1872: 28S rDNA partial sequence of Amphipholis kochii (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) by Shohei Kitagawa.


Phylum Chordata

Pyura vittata (Stimpson, 1852): Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequence of a putative calanoid copepod obtained from Pyura vittata (Chordata: Ascidiacea: Pleurogona: Pyuridae) by Shin Hayase.

Reports were not submitted with respect to the following specimens:
  • Ascidiacea sp.
  • Henricia nipponica
  • Semibalanus cariosus