Molecular phylogeny of the genus Drosophila and closely related genera (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
The drosophilid species is one of the extensively studied organisms
in biological science. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationship of
the subfamily Drosophilinae, which should provide a basis for the
various studies using drosophilids, has not been well established. In
order to solve this problem, we performed phylogenetic analyses using
nuclear DNA sequences for several species that have not been analyzed in
previous studies. In the phylogenetic trees, the Sophophora
lineage, which includes D. melanogaster, was separated prior to
the divergence of other drosophilid lineages. The subgenus
Drosophila emerged as paraphyletic to Hirtodrosophila,
Mycodrosophila, and Hawaiian Drosphilidae. The genus
Lordiphosa emerged as a polyphyletic group, in which the major
Lordiphosa lineage emerged as a closest sister taxon to the
wiilistoni and saltans groups of Sophophora whereas
the tenuicauda group of Lordiphosa was included in the
assemblage of Drosophila and Hirtodrosphila. Hawaiian
Drosophilidae constituted a clade together with D. annulipes and
D. maculinotata, and they emerged as a sister clade to the
virilis-repleta lineage of Drosophila. While these results
on the whole are in agreement with Throckmorton's (1975) classical
hypothesis rather than Grimaldi's (1990) recent one, we obtained some
additional findings that have not been presented in previous
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